The arguments below hope to demonstrate that matter, radiation and forces are equivalent and are the result of energy.

They question what energy is, whether space is something or nothing, what nothing is, and from these conclusions, suggest the possibility that the universe is composed of a single energized substance, where space is the substance, and energy is the movement of the substance which is detected as matter, radiation and forces.

A true understanding of  “nothing” helps a finite universe with an ending to be visualized.

The question of what time is, is also considered.


Everything in the universe that is detectable is either matter, radiation or force.

Matter, is mass, made up of atoms and found as solids, liquids and gases.

Atoms are made up of sub-atomic particles such as protons, neutrons and electrons.

Sub-atomic particles are made up of elementary particles such as quarks, leptons and bosons.


Electromagnetic radiation is a spectrum with different wavelengths that all travel constantly at 186,000 miles per second and consists of visible light, gamma rays, x-rays, radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation and ultraviolet rays.

Matter constantly emits radiation of some sort.


Forces exist in the form of gravitational fields, magnetic fields and centripetal forces.

They produce a change in the size, shape or the motion of a body exerting a push or a pull.

Forces are always associated with matter. Matter always has forces surrounding it.


Matter, radiation and forces are all made of energy. Energy is their simplest "broken" form.


When particles are accelerated with enough energy, that energy results in new particles that have more mass than their originals.


What is energy?


Energy is defined as "the capacity to do work" - not a solid answer.


Add energy to any matter, whether it's swinging, rotating, moving in a straight line or vibrating and it will move more quickly, and faster molecular movement causes an increase in temperature.


If there was no energy in the universe it would be just dark space.

All movement would cease, no stars would shine, planets would not rotate, atoms would not vibrate and there would be no electromagnetic radiation such as light.

Energy and movement are the same.


What is space?


Space is the other ingredient of the universe.

When empty as a vacuum it is thought of as being nothing but it has volume, three dimensions, can be imagined and is considered able to be distorted by the presence of mass. Matter and radiation move around in it.

Space exists and is something.


What is nothing?


Nothing cannot be pictured in the mind, it has no dimensions or volume.

It is not possible to move around in nothing.

Nothing has no dimensions, no volume, it is nil, zero, not anything.


A finite universe.


The universe is considered to be expanding, however an infinite universe cannot expand because it is already of limitless size, so an expanding universe must be finite.


If you were journeying at the end of the universe where no more matter or space existed, you would continue moving, not knowing you were at the edge, unable to detect nothing as it is not anything.


A Moving Space universe.


I suggest that energy is the movement of space.

Space being a fabric which is inert and undetectable until it moves, as your body lying in a still pool would only feel the water that moved against it.

Depending on the combination of movements, matter or electromagnetic radiation are produced.


Something from nothing?


Where did space or any first thing come from?

Getting "something from nothing" cannot be imagined and there is no known answer to how something can come from nothing.

At least, not yet.





What is time?  

The definition is “ What a clock reads” which isn't very informative.


Considering what happens as time passes and what would have to happen for time not to pass delivers us the answer to what time is.


Constantly and without exception, everything is moving. On our planet animals, the sea or the air around us, and throughout the universe, galaxies and planets are moving through space. Atoms are vibrating and light waves are travelling all around us.


Some movements such as the Earth revolving around the Sun and spinning on its axis give rise to cycles that are predictable and give us years, months, and days.

We use a timepiece such as a watch to split our days up into hours, minutes and seconds.


A timepiece uses a movement - a pendulum or wheels, to regularly count off seconds and give us a time reading.


These readings can be used as a coordinate, to label a unique specific moment in time and space.


If everything in the universe were to stop moving, then time would stop.

The pendulum would be still, nothing anywhere would move or change position.

All would be caught in a timeless moment, as in a photograph.

For time to occur both matter and space need to exist; matter to be moved and space for matter to move around in.


The measurement of time is purely mathematical and is used because humans have a memory and want to be able to refer to past events and plan for future ones.


Without human minds, time would simply be movement, as there would be no intelligence, memory or number system to relate occurrences to each other.